What Is the Central Idea of This Passage from the Social Contract Group of Answer Choices

Posted by on Apr 16, 2022 in Uncategorized | 0 comments

Jean-Jacques Rousseau remains an important figure in the history of philosophy, both for his contributions to political philosophy and moral psychology and for his influence on later thinkers. Rousseau`s own view of philosophy and philosophers was decidedly negative, seeing philosophers as post-hoc rationalizers of self-interest, as apologists for various forms of tyranny, and as a role in alienating the modern individual from humanity`s natural impulse to compassion. The concern that dominates Rousseau`s work is to find a way to preserve human freedom in a world where people are increasingly interdependent in meeting their needs. This concern has two dimensions: material and psychological, the latter having greater significance. In the modern world, people derive their sense of self from the opinions of others, a fact that Rousseau considers corrosive to freedom and destructive to individual authenticity. In his mature work, he mainly explores two ways of achieving and protecting freedom: the first is a political path, which aims to build political institutions that allow the coexistence of free and equal citizens in a community in which they themselves are sovereign; The second is a project for the development and education of children that promotes autonomy and avoids the development of the most destructive forms of self-interest. Although Rousseau believes that the coexistence of human beings in relations of equality and freedom is possible, he is constantly and massively pessimistic that humanity will escape a dystopia of alienation, oppression and lack of freedom. In addition to his contributions to philosophy, Rousseau was active as a composer and music theorist, as a pioneer of modern autobiography, as a novelist, and as a botanist. Rousseau`s appreciation of the wonders of nature and his emphasis on the meaning of feeling and emotion made him an important influence and precursor of the Romantic movement. To a very large extent, the interests and concerns that characterize his philosophical work are also reflected in these other activities, and Rousseau`s contributions in seemingly non-philosophical fields often serve to shed light on his philosophical obligations and arguments.

From these premises of human nature, Hobbes constructs a provocative and convincing argument for why we should be willing to submit to political authority. He does this by imagining people in a situation prior to the foundation of society, to the state of nature. After Rawls argued that any rational person who holds the original position and stands behind the veil of ignorance can discover both principles of justice, Rawls constructed perhaps the most abstract version of a theory of the social contract. It is very abstract, because instead of showing that we would have signed or even signed a contract to found the company, it rather shows us what we must be willing to accept as rational people in order to be constrained by justice and therefore to be able to live in a well-ordered society. The principles of justice are more fundamental than the social contract as it has traditionally been conceived. On the contrary, the principles of justice limit this contract and set the limits of how we can build society in the first place. For example, if we view a constitution as a concrete expression of the social contract, Rawls` two principles of justice describe what such a constitution can and cannot require of us. Rawls` theory of justice thus represents the Kantian limits of the political and social forms of organization that are permissible in a just society.

Rousseau`s invocation of three types of freedom (natural, civil and moral) in the text of the social contract may seem confusing. The picture is further complicated by the fact that it is also based on a fourth conception of freedom, which is related to civil liberty but different from it, which it does not explicitly mention anywhere. This is “republican freedom” and it is not that I am subject to my own will, but that the law protects me from being subject to the will of another particular person in the manner of a slave or serf. To find Rousseau`s explicit support for this idea, it is not necessary to look at the social contract, but at some of his unpublished notes. However, the concept is clearly implicit in the infamous passage “forced to be free” in Book 1 Chapter 7, where he explains that if every citizen is forced to obey the general will, it gives him a guarantee against “any personal dependence.” Virginia Held argued that “contemporary Western society is plagued by contractual thinking” (193). Contract models have come to inform a variety of relationships and interactions between people, from students and their teachers to authors and their readers. Given this, it would be difficult to overestimate the impact of social contract theory both in philosophy and on culture at large. The theory of social contracts will undoubtedly accompany us in the foreseeable future. But also the critique of such a theory, which will continue to force us to think and rethink the nature of ourselves and our relationships with each other.

Locke`s most important and influential political writings are contained in his Two Treatises on Government. The first treatise deals almost exclusively with the refutation of robert Filmer`s Patriarchate argument that political authority was derived from religious authority, which is also known by the description of the divine right of kings, which was a very dominant theory in seventeenth-century England. The second document contains Locke`s own constructive view of the goals and rationale of civilian government and is entitled “An Essay On The True Original Extent and End of Civilian Government.” Rousseau then spent a short time training to become a Catholic priest before embarking on another short career as an itinerant musician, music copyist and teacher. In 1731 he returned to Madame de Warens in Chambéry and later briefly became her lover and then her head of the house. Rousseau remained with Mme de Warens until the late 1730s and moved to Lyon in 1740 to take up employment as a tutor. This appointment placed him in the orbit of Condillac and Alembert and was his first contact with important figures of the French Enlightenment. In 1742 he went to Paris after drawing up a plan for a new digital system of musical notation, which he submitted to the Académie des Sciences. The system was rejected by the Academy, but during this time Rousseau met Denis Diderot. He was followed by a short stay as secretary to the French ambassador in Venice, before Rousseau settled permanently in Paris from 1744, where he continued to work mainly on music and began to write contributions to the Encyclopedia of Diderot and Alembert. According to Locke, the state of nature is not a state of individuals, as is the case with Hobbes. Rather, it is populated by mothers and fathers with their children or families – what he calls “conjugal society” (para.